TNT Colloquium: A two-component picture of the proton [Duke]
Partons probed in high-energy scattering of a proton are effective field theory
objects arising from the infinite momentum limit of the proton. Although
the momentum and quark helicity are entirely distributed in non-zero-x partons
moving along with the proton, there is a non-moving component with x=0 representing a "condensate" with long-range light-cone correlations. This kinematic condensate contributes to the scalar charge and the mass of the proton, and can be calculated through large-momentum effective theory (LaMET) from lattice QCD. Experimentally, the effects of the condensate can be probe through high-energy processes involving the transverse or longitudinally polarized proton at JLab and future EIC.